What Is Pro Rata and How Is it Calculated?

This principle of fairness affects everything from part-time wages to holiday entitlements, making it essential to understand for both employees and employers. They will do so by dividing the total monthly rent due by the number of days in the month to determine the amount of the rent that is proportionate to each day. They will then multiply that amount by the number of days that you will be occupying the apartment that first month. Let’s say that you are moving on the 15th of October and your monthly rent is $700. The phrase ‘pro rata’ stems from the Latin term for ‘in proportion’. It’s used to describe the proportional value of a part in comparison to its whole.

  • Pro rata, a Latin term meaning ‘in proportion’, is a concept commonly used in finance, law, and business.
  • In this case, $200 is the whole, and the pro rata calculation must be used to determine the appropriate portion of that whole due to each shareholder.
  • At the basic level, the concept should be clear that you need some form of an existing data series which is linear itself, like time.
  • You can then multiply the per share dividend amount by the total number of shares each shareholder possesses.

Another common use is to determine the amount due for a partial insurance policy term. Most insurance policies are based on a 12-month period, so if a policy is needed for a shorter term, the insurance company must prorate the annual premium to determine what is owed. To do this, divide the total premium by the number of days in a standard term, and multiply by the number of days covered by the truncated policy.

pro rata

Imagine that you work on a pro rata basis for 30 hours per week, while your colleague works full time at 40 hours per week. Your colleague earns the full amount, while your pro rata salary would be £30,000 per year to represent the 30 out of 40 hours worked. On the other hand, expenses can be set by using a pro-rata approach when a budget is being designed, e.g. marketing expenses will be limited to 5% of net revenues. As you can see from the example above, a pro rata calculator is often applied to salaries or hourly wages. However, these calculations are also applicable to financial situations such as dividend payments, interest rates, and insurance premiums.

  • However, if we want to know the exact number of years it takes to recover the investment of 3 years then again we need to use the pro rata basis concept.
  • In American English this term has been vernacularized to prorated or pro-rated.
  • The phrase ‘pro rata’ stems from the Latin term for ‘in proportion’.
  • Here we calculated using the ultimate value and divided it by months.

Pro rata is a Latin term used to describe a proportionate allocation. It essentially translates to “in proportion,” which means a process where whatever is being allocated will be distributed in equal portions. The cumulative cash flow shows that between the 5th and 6th year, the initial investment is recovered. However, if we want to know the exact number of years it takes to recover the investment of 3 years then again we need to use the pro rata basis concept.

Pro rata, a Latin term meaning ‘in proportion’, is a concept commonly used in finance, law, and business. This principle is often applied when resources, time, or money need to be allocated fairly across different parties. This article provides a comprehensive understanding of what pro rata means and how to calculate it. You can use the same pro rata calculator method to figure out holiday benefits for part-time employees.

Let’s say I was working in Goldman Sachs and was to receive a $240,000 bonus apart from my annual salary on completing 12 months of employment. The mathematical concept of pro rata works because the proportion of one good is imposed on another. Pro rata entails taking a fraction of one item and conveying the same fraction on another base.

Pro Rata Expense Allocation

Pro rata typically means that each party or person receives their fair share in proportion to the whole. Pro rata calculations can be used in many areas, including determining dividend payments, which are cash payments by corporations paid to shareholders. This means their pay is proportionate to the number of hours or days they work relative to a full-time employee.


The bond buyer, not the issuer, is responsible for paying the bond seller the accrued interest, which is added to the market price. For example, if a company declares a dividend to be distributed pro rata among its shareholders, each shareholder will receive an amount proportional to the number of shares they own. A company uses a standard costing system to account for vertical analysis formula example its inventory, and has an unfavorable variance of $100,000 that it must allocate between the cost of goods sold and ending inventory. There is $200,000 of ending inventory, and there were $800,000 of cost of goods sold during the period. A business is sold, and the proceeds are distributed to the common shareholders based on the number of shares held by each one.

Assuming a non-leap year, there are 79 days (inclusive) between January 1 and March 20. If the unsecured claims total $1,000,000, and the money left for distribution is $10,000, then each creditor will receive 1 cent for each dollar of their claim. The pro rata concept is applicable to numerous situations, both in finance and payroll.

Pro rata can be communicated as a percent (i.e. the shareholder owns 10% of the company’s stock) or as a quantity (i.e. the shareholder owns 100,000 of the company’s 1 million shares of stock. When a college student withdraws, colleges may refund tuition payments on a pro rata basis. Even if you are not an investor or working in the financial sector, you will still encounter pro rata basisat some point in your life. For example, if you’re moving into an apartment on any day other than the first day of the month, then your landlord is likely to pro-rate your rent for the month.

Other Applications of Pro Rata

This doesn’t necessarily mean that each part is equal; instead, it means that all parts contain weighted values in relation to their proportional size. If you’ve ever applied for a new job, you’ve most likely seen the phrase ‘pro rata’ used in employer salary descriptions. What does the term mean in this context and others, and how can you calculate values using the pro rata basis?

In this example, the pro rata value of the vote is equal to 1 divided by the total population that votes. Pro rata is also used to determine how much of a distribution from a qualified retirement account—such as an IRA, SEP, or 401(k)—is taxable when the account contains before and after-tax dollars. For example, an account holder has a 401(k) funded with 20% pre-tax dollars and 80% post-tax dollars. As a result, withdrawals will consist of 20% taxable and 80% non-taxable money. In this article, we unravel the meaning of pro rata, explore its real-world applications, and provide a detailed guide on how to calculate it. Whether you’re a seasoned professional or new to the concept, this guide will empower you with the knowledge you need to navigate the world of pro rata with confidence.

You can use this proportional system of calculation whenever you must break down units of measurement into smaller pieces. With some simple mathematics or online calculators, you’ll be able to adjust your amount to the proportional value. In the case of dividends, a company’s shareholders are paid according to the number of shares they own. Imagine that Company ABC has distributed a total of 100 shares among four shareholders.

In a Bankruptcy case, when the debtor is insolvent, creditors generally agree to accept a pro rata share of what is owed to them. If the debtor has any remaining funds, the money is divided proportionately among the creditors, according to the amount of the individual debts. A pro rata discount is a type of discount a merchant offers a customer.

How Does Pro Rata Apply to Dividends Per Share?

Latin for “in proportion.” The term “pro rata” is used to denote proportional distributions or allocations. In a legal sense, pro rata may refer to a share to be received, an amount to be paid, or liability based on the fractional share of ownership, responsibility, or time. For example, a pro rata dividend is a dividend that is paid to each shareholder in proportion to the number of shares they own.






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